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The Future of Discovery

What is Success?

The NIGMS Vision for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Training

Key Themes and Specific Actions

Looking Forward

Listening to Stakeholders

References

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Investing in the Future: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Strategic Plan for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Training 2011

References

1 Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Education and employment of biological and medical scientists: data from national surveys. Available from: http://www.faseb.org/Policy-and-Government-Affairs/Data-Compilations/Education-and-Employment-of-Scientists.aspx Link to external Web site. Source data from the National Science Foundation. Graduate students and postdoctorates in S&E. Available from: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/gradpostdoc Link to external Web site.

2 Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Education and employment of biological and medical scientists: data from national surveys. Available from: http://www.faseb.org/Policy-and-Government-Affairs/Data-Compilations/Education-and-Employment-of-Scientists.aspx Link to external Web site.

3 Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Education and employment of biological and medical scientists: data from national surveys. Available from: http://www.faseb.org/Policy-and-Government-Affairs/Data-Compilations/Education-and-Employment-of-Scientists.aspx Link to external Web site. Source data from the National Institutes of Health. Research portfolio online reporting tools. Available from: http://report.nih.gov.

4 National Science Foundation. SESTAT: scientists and engineers statistical data system. Available from: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/sestat Link to external Web site.

5 U.S. Census Bureau. Population projections, U.S. interim projections by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: 2000-2050, projected population of the United States, by race and Hispanic origin: 2000 to 2050. Available from: http://www.census.gov/population/projections/data/national/usinterimproj.html Link to external Web site.

6 Association of American Medical Colleges. U.S. medical school faculty, 2009. Available from: https://www.aamc.org/data/facultyroster/reports/usmsf09 (no longer available).

7 National Science Foundation. National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics data tables. Available from: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf09317/content.cfm?pub_id=3920&id=2 Link to external Web site.

8 Committee on Underrepresented Groups and the Expansion of the Science and Engineering Workforce Pipeline; Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy; Policy and Global Affairs; National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. Expanding underrepresented minority participation: America’s science and technology talent at the crossroads. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12984 Link to external Web site (prepublication).

9 Committee to Study the National Needs for Biomedical, Behavioral, and Clinical Research Personnel; National Research Council. Research training in the biomedical, behavioral, and clinical research sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12983 Link to external Web site (prepublication).

10 National Institutes of Health. Advisory Committee to the Director, 101st meeting, December 9, 2010. Available from: http://nih.granicus.com/MediaPlayer.php?publish_id=32 Link to external Web site.

11 Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. Public praises science; scientists fault public, media. Section 1: public views of science and scientists. Available from: http://peoplepress.org/2009/07/09/section1publicviewsofscienceandscientists Link to external Web site.

12 Nerad M, Cerny J. From rumors to facts: career outcomes of English Ph.D.s: results from the Ph.D.s–ten years later study. Council of Graduate Schools Communicator. 1999;32(7):1-11.

13 Ruiz Bravo N, Olsen KL. Letter to Alyson Reed, National Postdoctoral Association, January 29, 2007. Available from: http://grants.nih.gov/training/Reed_Letter.pdf.

14 About 80 percent of $2 billion in FY 2010. National Institute of General Medical Sciences. Fiscal year 2010 budget, budget graphs. Available from: http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/cjs/2010/budget_graphs.html.

15 About $200 million in FY 2010. National Institute of General Medical Sciences. Fiscal year 2010 budget, budget graphs. Available from: http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/cjs/2010/budget_graphs.html.

16 Among the most recognized NIH research training mechanisms is the National Research Service Award (NRSA) program, which was established in 1974 and renamed in 2002 as the Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA program to honor the former NIGMS director for her efforts to support biomedical and behavioral workforce development.

17 Handelsman J, Pfund C, Lauffer SM, Pribbenow CM. Entering mentoring: a seminar to train a new generation of scientists. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Press; 2005. Available from: http://www.hhmi.org/catalog/main?action=product&itemId=272 Link to external Web site.

18 Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Individual development plan for postdoctoral fellows. Available from: http://www.faseb.org/portals/0/pdfs/opa/idp.pdf Link to external Web site.

19 National Postdoctoral Association. The NPA postdoctoral core competencies toolkit. Available from: http://www.nationalpostdoc.org/competencies Link to external Web site.

20 National Institutes of Health. NIH postdoc handbook. Available from: https://www.training.nih.gov/assets/Postdoc_Handbook.pdf.

21 Davis G. Doctors without orders. Amer Sci. 2005;93(3, supplement). Available from: http://postdoc.sigmaxi.org/results Link to external Web site.

22 Denson N, Chang MJ. Racial diversity matters: the impact of diversity-related student engagement and institutional context. Am Educ Res J. 2009;46(2):322-53.

23 Gurin P, Dey EL, Hurtado S, Gurin G. Diversity and higher education: theory and impact on educational outcomes. Harvard Educ Rev. 2002;72(3):330-66.

24 Gurin P, Nagda BA, Lopez G. The benefits of diversity in education for democratic citizenship. J Soc Issues. 2004;60(1)17-34.

25 Whitla DK, Orfield G, Silen W, Teperow C, Howard C, Reede J. Educational benefits of diversity in medical school: a survey of students. Acad Med. 2003;78(5):460-6.

26 Hoffman LR, Maier NRF. Quality and acceptance of problem solutions by members of homogeneous and heterogeneous groups. J Abnorm Soc Psych. 1961;62(2):401-7.

27 Hong L, Page SE. Groups of diverse problem solvers can outperform groups of high-ability problem solvers. P Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004;101(46):16385-9.

28 McLeod PL, Lobel SA, Cox TH Jr. Ethnic diversity and creativity in small groups. Small Gr Res. 1996;27(2):248-64.

29 Watson WE, Kumar K, Michaelsen LK. Cultural diversity’s impact on interaction process and performance: comparing homogeneous and diverse task groups. Acad Manage J. 1993;36(3):590-602.

30 Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003). Available from: http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/ getcase.pl?navby= CASE&court=US&vol=539&page=306 Link to external Web site.

31 National Institutes of Health. Frequently asked questions: recruitment and retention plan to enhance diversity. Available from: http://grants.nih.gov/training/faq_diversity.htm.

32 Bowen WG, Bok DC. The shape of the river. Princeton: Princeton University Press;1998.

33 Bowen WG, Kurzweil MA, Tobin EM. Equity and excellence in American higher education. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press; 2005.

34 Bowen WG, Chingos MM, McPherson MS. Crossing the finish line. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2009.

35 Hoffman LR, Maier NRF. Quality and acceptance of problem solutions by members of homogeneous and heterogeneous groups. J Abnorm Soc Psych. 1961;62(2):401-7.

36 Watson WE, Kumar K, Michaelsen LK. Cultural diversity’s impact on interaction process and performance: comparing homogeneous and diverse task groups. Acad Manage J. 1993;36(3):590-602.

37 Hong L, Page SE. Groups of diverse problem solvers can outperform groups of high-ability problem solvers. P Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004;101(46):16385-9.

38 McLeod PL, Lobel SA, Cox TH Jr. Ethnic diversity and creativity in small groups. Small Gr Res. 1996;27(2):248-64.

39 American Association for the Advancement of Science, Association of American Universities. Handbook on diversity and the law: navigating a complex landscape to foster greater faculty and student diversity in higher education. Available from: http://php.aaas.org/programs/centers/capacity/publications/complexlandscape/PDFs/Law_FrontMatter.pdf Link to external Web site.

40 Ibid.

41 Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978). Available from: http://laws.findlaw.com/us/438/265.html Link to external Web site.

42 Triandis HC, Davis EE. Race and belief as determinants of behavioral intentions. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1965;2(5):715-25.

43 Cox TC Jr. Creating the multicultural organization: a strategy for capturing the power of diversity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2001.

44 Ripple Effect Communications. National Institute of General Medical Sciences strategic plan for training and career development: analysis of responses. Available from: http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/training/Training_Strategic_Plan_Summary.pdf.

This page last reviewed on May 20, 2011