Minority Programs Update

Winter 2000

The NIGMS Minority Programs Update is produced by the Office of Communications and Public Liaison of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences. The material is not copyrighted and we encourage its use or reprinting.

Editor: Susan Athey, e-mail atheys@nigms.nih.gov
Assistant Editor: Danielle Wittenberg, e-mail wittenbd@nigms.nih.gov
Office of Communications and Public Liaison, NIGMS
Room 1AS.25
45 Center Drive MSC 6200
Bethesda, MD 20892-6200
Telephone: (301) 496-7301
Fax: (301) 402-0224


Sophia Cleland

Sophia Cleland, a panelist at the American Indian Research Training Needs Meeting, described the programs and initiatives that have encouraged her to pursue a career in science. Cleland, a Lakota Indian and a graduate student in genetics, expressed the need for more research programs that are culturally sensitive to the American Indian community. For more on the meeting, see NIGMS and IHS Host American Indian Research Training Needs Meeting.


Dr. Geraldine Pittman Woods

Minority Programs Advocate Dies

by Susan Athey, NIGMS

Dr. Geraldine Pittman Woods, who played an instrumental role in the development of several of NIH's minority programs, died on December 27, 1999, at her home in Aliso Viejo, CA. She was 78 years old.

"Dr. Woods was a person ahead of her time," said Dr. Ruth Kirschstein, acting NIH director and director of NIGMS from 1974-1993. "She received a Ph.D. in biology from Radcliffe long before any other African American scientist could so qualify. Yet she never forgot her roots and worked tirelessly to assist in establishing the MARC and MBRS Programs."

Woods provided major assistance to NIGMS and the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) in initiating the early development of research and research training programs at NIGMS designed to increase the number of minority biomedical scientists. She was appointed to the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council in 1964 and in this position, she addressed the need to improve science education and research opportunities at minority institutions. After completing her advisory council term in 1967, Woods served as a special consultant to then-NIGMS Director Dr. Frederick Stone. For several years, she visited a number of historically Black colleges and universities to assess their science education programs and to invite faculty members to submit research proposals to NIH.

In 1970, Woods reported to the NIH director and to the directors of individual NIH institutes that minority institutions were eager to improve their research facilities, to increase student and faculty research training capabilities, to enhance science curricula, and to provide for faculty development. She also contacted Senator Edward Brooke of Massachusetts and Congressmen Louis Stokes of Ohio and Augustus Hawkins of California to discuss NIH's activities and proposed support mechanisms. This led to the 1972 launch of the Minority Schools Biomedical Support Program (now known as the Minority Biomedical Research Support Program; the administration of this program was transferred from NCRR to NIGMS in 1989). Also that year, NIGMS established visiting scientist and faculty fellowship awards through the Minority Access to Research Careers Program.

According to Dr. Clifton Poodry, director of the NIGMS Division of Minority Opportunities in Research (MORE), "Dr. Woods' interest in our programs did not end with her retirement from active involvement. She was always grateful to hear some good news or success stories about MARC or MBRS participants, and she was also interested in knowing that the programs were continually striving to improve and in learning about new initiatives."

"She fought hard for opportunities for others--we are greatly enriched for her efforts," Poodry added.

In addition to her involvement with NIH's minority initiatives, Woods was a prominent leader in other national educational, political, and scientific endeavors. Her activities included serving as the first woman chair of the Board of Trustees of Howard University and two terms as national president of the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority.

Woods earned a bachelor's degree in zoology from Howard University in Washington, DC. She continued her education at Radcliffe College/Harvard University in Cambridge, MA, where she earned both a master's degree and a Ph.D. in neuroembryology.

Survivors include her husband, Dr. Robert Woods of Aliso Viejo, CA; two daughters, Jan Rooks of Santa Monica, CA, and Jerri Woods of Glendale, CA; one son, Robert Woods, Jr. of Palo Alto, CA; and three grandchildren. Memorial donations may be made to the Geraldine P. Woods Endowment Fund, c/o Grozellia Herring, Howard University College of Medicine, 2225 Georgia Avenue, Washington, DC 20059.

NIGMS and IHS Host American Indian Research Training Needs Meeting

by Danielle Wittenberg, NIGMS

NIGMS, along with the Indian Health Service (IHS), brought together American Indian scientists from around the country for a 2-day meeting this past August to discuss the research training needs of American Indians.

The participants were charged with the task of recommending ways in which NIH could improve its relationship with the American Indian community in order to foster better working partnerships, which, in turn, might lead to more American Indian biomedical researchers. They discussed their views on topics ranging from credibility with the American Indian community to the needs of new basic science investigators and students.

Some of the tentative recommendations included encouraging American Indian tribes to participate in research as applicant organizations; supporting and extending successful training activities of American Indian scientific societies, including programs targeting pre-college students; and enhancing the outreach activities of existing clinical and community-based research programs.

"NIH is fortunate to have had the benefit of such a large, broadly constituted delegation of representatives from the American Indian community," said Dr. Michael Martin, director of the Division of Physiological Systems at the NIH Center for Scientific Review. "They have given us new insights and described opportunities that NIH can take immediate advantage of, as well as those that we can incorporate into our long-term planning."

The meeting, which hosted more than 30 panelists and as many as 60 observers, was described by Dr. Clifton Poodry, director of the MORE Division, as "the first step in a process that will foster a stronger relationship with American Indian communities." "It has already begun catalyzing interactions among NIH institutes and between NIGMS and IHS that will help us address a particularly challenging area of underrepresentation," he said.

Richard Harrison

Richard Harrison, chief of the Contracts Review Branch at the National Institute on Drug Abuse and a member of the Osage Indian Tribe, opened the meeting with a traditional welcome, in which he expressed gratitude for the gifts and knowledge that are currently enjoyed throughout the American Indian community. He asked for guidance as nature's mysteries continue to be explored for new answers and solutions to restore harmony, health, and well-being to the American Indian community.

Dr. Ruth Kirschstein

NIH deputy director Dr. Ruth Kirschstein (third from left) welcomed meeting participants on behalf of the NIH Office of the Director. She stressed the importance of partnerships between NIH and the IHS. Seated with Kirschstein are panelists (from left) Dr. Michael Martin, a Cherokee Indian and director of the Division of Physiological Systems, NIH Center for Scientific Review; Dr. Yvette Roubideaux, a Rosebud Sioux Indian who is associate director of the Center for Native American Health and a clinical assistant professor at the University of Arizona Prevention Center; and Dr. Clifton Poodry, a Seneca Indian and director of the MORE Division.

Leo Nolan

Leo Nolan (right), assistant to the IHS director and a member of the St. Regis Mohawk Indian Tribe, said, "these types of collaborations with NIH are critically important to improving the health status of our American Indian and Alaska Native communities." The goal of the IHS, according to Nolan, is to raise the health status of American Indians and Alaska Natives to the highest possible level. Pictured with Nolan is meeting facilitator JoAnn Kauffman, a member of the Nez Perce Indian Tribe.

From the MORE Director…

The Problem of N=1

by Clifton Poodry, Ph.D., Director, MORE Division, NIGMS

Why is it that there is so much passionate discussion about the state of education in the United States but little progress has been made in educational reform? Why is it that methods for motivating, educating, and mentoring students follow well-worn paths in spite of growing needs for more effective interventions?

Too few scientists are aware that an abundance of literature on the topic of science education exists. Perhaps even worse, some of the individuals who know about the available literature and who know about intervention strategies seem willing to ignore the data without checking into it further. Isn't it strange that scientists would choose to ignore data that may be relevant to issues of importance to them?

What is N=1?

I speculate that a reason we often ignore, or at least downplay, data on education is that we are guided by a data set that has more validity for us. Any new data that conflicts with our existing data set is subject to skepticism and criticism. What is this data set? It is our own personal experience with education--we experience it as students and as parents, and many of us experience it as teachers. Unfortunately, the sample size of our data set is limited. It can be thought of as N=1. It is simply our unique individual experiences. We know about education from first-hand experiences, so any idea that someone else presents, unless it resonates with our own world view, does not find a sympathetic, open mind. Furthermore, I suspect that most of us get our information on educational interventions from newspapers, magazines, or other presentations that do not have the same rigor as we expect from presentations of science.

In our scientific endeavors, we build upon existing knowledge garnered from a literature that has been sharpened by peer review. We critically examine the data upon which conclusions are based. We don't worry about being accused of reinventing the wheel because we know what has gone before--we know where the cutting edge is. In our scientific endeavors, we carefully monitor the experiments and we carefully analyze the data. Finally, it is not considered science unless it is published, so we work to share our findings by presenting our data and analysis in clear and convincing terms so that our peers, when they review it, will consider it worthy of publication. However, we fail to invoke a similar approach to initiatives to improve our teaching or other initiatives to enhance the skills of students and faculty. When it comes to education and educational interventions, we fall back on our own experience--on our data set in which the N=1.

That we rely first and foremost on our own experience is not surprising. That is how we (and children) learn, by building on our pre-existing knowledge. But what if our experience represents a data point outside of the norm and out of context for many of today's students? What if we are merely survivors of a poorly designed process that deterred rather than developed human potential? My worry is that what worked for you or me personally may or may not be the best method for preparing the next generation for a scientific career.

Search for Solutions

At this point, you may be wondering what this has to do with the programs of the MORE Division. The MORE Division would like to raise the level of scholarship involved in planning, executing, and evaluating intervention activities sponsored by NIGMS.

I believe that the programs funded by the MORE Division will be more successful if we can expand our frame of reference beyond an N of 1. An important beginning has been in the sharing of experiences that occurs at MORE program director meetings. Other agencies, such as the National Science Foundation and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, share highlights of program activities through annual reports. However, such reports lack the depth of analysis and credibility of a peer-reviewed publication.

I envision a time when all successful applicants for MORE funding will be cognizant and critical of the relevant literature so that they can utilize their knowledge of effective interventions in the design of their programs. Equally important, I look forward to seeing the results and analyses of MORE-supported programs in the peer-reviewed literature. Then and only then will we be building on the shoulders of giants rather than settling for programs informed by an N=1.

I look forward to receiving your comments and ideas.

Dr. Clifton Poodry
Director, MORE Division, NIGMS
Room 2AS.37
45 Center Drive MSC 6200
Bethesda, MD 20892-6200
Telephone: (301) 594-3900
Fax: (301) 480-2753
e-mail: poodryc@nigms.nih.gov

Early Application Deadline
for Bridges Program

Letter of Intent--June 1, 2000
Application Deadline--July 17, 2000

NIGMS and the NIH Office of Research on Minority Health have released requests for applications for two programs--Bridges to the Baccalaureate and Bridges to the Doctorate. Letters of intent are due on June 1, and the applications are due on July 17.

The text of the announcements is available on the Web at:
Bridges to the Baccalaureate--
Bridges to the Doctorate--

Please read the announcements carefully. If you have any questions or if you would like to receive a copy of the announcements, contact:

Dr. Irene Eckstrand
Director, Bridges to the Future Program, NIGMS
Room 2AS.25
45 Center Drive MSC 6200
Bethesda, MD 20892-6200
Telephone: (301) 594-5402
Fax: (301) 480-2228
e-mail: eckstrai@nigms.nih.gov

MORE E-Mail Distribution List Discontinued

The MORE Division discontinued its e-mail distribution list effective November 1, 1999. According to Dr. Clifton Poodry, director of the MORE Division, the list was ended because the time needed to maintain it exceeded its value.

"The MORE e-mail distribution list was a useful venue for announcements, but it never developed into the interactive forum for discussion of ideas and issues that I had hoped," Poodry said.

Individuals wishing to distribute announcements to the MARC, MBRS, or Bridges program directors can still forward messages to the MORE Division and they will be sent out to the appropriate e-mail lists.

For more information, contact the MORE Division at (301) 594-3900.

Shafer Leaves NIGMS

by Susan Athey, NIGMS

Dr. W. Sue Shafer, NIGMS deputy director, retired at the end of October after 25 years of government service, most of which were spent at the Institute. At the time of her retirement, she was also director of the NIGMS Division of Extramural Activities, a position she had held since 1989.

Shafer came to NIH in 1974 as a health scientist administrator in the Cellular and Molecular Basis of Disease Program of NIGMS. In 1978, she became chief of the instrumentation section of the Institute's Physiology and Biomedical Engineering Program. Her section's mission was enlarged in 1980 to include biomedical engineering.

In 1983, Shafer joined what is now the National Center for Research Resources as chief of the Office of Program Planning and Evaluation, and in 1987, feeling she was moving "too far away from the science," Shafer moved to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, serving first as deputy director of the Division of Basic Research and then as the division's acting director.

Shafer returned to NIGMS in 1989 as director of the Division of Extramural Activities, and in 1997, she was named NIGMS' deputy director.

Throughout her government career, Shafer worked to increase the number of minority and female scientists engaged in biomedical research. She made significant accomplishments in reshaping the Institute's minority programs and their funding mechanisms. "Watching other people grow and succeed has been the most rewarding part of each of my jobs," Shafer noted.

Although she has officially retired from government service, Shafer has not retired from scientific leadership and grants administration. She left NIH for the University of California, San Francisco, where she serves as assistant vice chancellor for research administration.

Profile: Dr. Erich D. Jarvis

This special section profiles former MARC and MBRS participants who have excelled in their fields. We hope that the profiles will give students an idea of the types of careers available with science degrees and the paths others have taken to achieve those careers.

Dr. Jarvis is a former MBRS program participant at Hunter College and a former MARC predoctoral fellow at The Rockefeller University, both in New York, NY. He is now an assistant professor in the Department of Neurobiology at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, NC, where he has worked since 1998. Jarvis' research interests include the neurobiology of vocal communication, with an emphasis on the molecular pathways involved in the perception and production of learned vocalizations. He received a B.A. in 1988 in biology and mathematics from Hunter College and a Ph.D. in 1995 in molecular neurobiology and animal behavior from The Rockefeller University, where he also performed postdoctoral research.

HOW I BECAME INTERESTED IN SCIENCE: As a child, I wanted to be a magician. I used to perform magic shows for the kids in my neighborhood in Corona, Queens, and later in the Bronx, NY. As a teenager, after deciding that magic was not real enough, I appealed to my creative side and became a dancer at the High School of the Performing Arts in New York City.

My mother instilled in me a need to do something for the greater good of humankind, and my father, who strove to become a scientist but dropped out of college, instilled in me the desire to gain knowledge. Thus, I entered Hunter College in New York and combined all these factors into one decision to become a scientist. Like a magician, I would do things that no one has ever done before and perform what would seem like miracles. Like a dancer, I would have to choreograph things in order to invent experiments, and I would have to be disciplined and practice over and over again until the experiment was done right. The potential discoveries I would make could benefit humankind in the understanding of diseases. Such discoveries would also satisfy my desire to gain knowledge. This is why I became a scientist.

HOW THE MARC/MBRS PROGRAM HELPED ME: Both the MARC and the MBRS programs gave me an opportunity and an advantage to offset a disadvantage. I grew up in Harlem, Queens, and the Bronx. My parents separated when I was 6 years old, and although I kept intermittent contact with my father, he was not in a position to help us financially and my mother ended up on welfare. Because of the efforts of the grandparents on both sides of my family, my four brothers, one sister, and I were kept in school and out of trouble. However, the quality of education we received and our financial status were not enough for us to be able to compete with other students who did not have these disadvantages.

When I entered college, the MBRS Program, and later the MARC Program, helped me both financially and educationally. The programs provided me with one-on-one interactions with professors who were concerned about my future. I worked closely with my mentor at Hunter College, Dr. Rivka Rudner, and learned a great deal scientifically from these interactions. Most importantly, the main benefit of the MBRS and MARC programs for me was that the experiences and faculty involved in these programs gave me the means to express my scientific potential. Without these, no matter how good a scientist I wanted to be, I would not have been able to express my abilities.

WHAT I ENJOY MOST ABOUT SCIENCE: I enjoy the creativity of science and understanding Mother Nature.

MY ROLE MODEL: My external role model is my grandfather, James Hodnette Jarvis. I have tried to emulate many of his traits--he was a person who was well respected, and he had a strong sense of honor, honesty, and dignity. He maintained strong family ties and considered family bonds to be of the utmost importance. Internally, I consider myself as my own role model. By this, I mean that I set my own goals and standards for the type of person I want to be.

One of the key components of my being a successful scientist was having family support. My parents, stepparent, grandparents, aunts, uncles, siblings, and cousins all supported my efforts to become a scientist. I don't mean financially, although some helped in that area, but emotionally by encouraging me. One person in particular--my wife, Miriam Rivas--was key in this respect. She was an MBRS graduate student at the time I was an MBRS undergraduate student. She understands the hard work that goes into being a scientist, the number of hours required to perform experiments in the lab, and the difficulties of coming from a disadvantaged background. Her family migrated from Puerto Rico to New York's Lower East Side in the 1950s. We have helped each other. She has also received her Ph.D. and is now a research associate working in dermatology. Her help in my attaining the positions I now have, even after having two children, has been phenomenal.

MY ADVICE TO STUDENTS ENTERING/CONSIDERING SCIENTIFIC CAREERS: Science is best considered for the pleasure of making discoveries first, and for financial gain second. There are difficulties, though, in our current times. There are fewer professor positions than there are persons holding Ph.D.s who want these jobs. To do well as an academic scientist, one has to be highly motivated, persistent, and intuitive. Thus, a scientific career may not be right for everybody, but there are certainly enough people who have such attributes. There are other avenues of scientific research that require similar and different types of attributes, that would lead to careers in teaching at the elementary to high school levels, working in scientific companies, working as lab managers in universities, or working in government scientific laboratories. My best advice is to go with what you want the most and do not let fear of failure stop you.

If you know an outstanding former MARC or MBRS participant who has excelled professionally and you would like to nominate that person as a future Update profile subject, please let us know. Your suggestions are always welcome.

News and Notes

The University of Kentucky, in cooperation with NIGMS, is sponsoring a free, Web-based grant writing course for faculty at minority-serving institutions who are interested in biomedical research. The course presents faculty members with the essentials of writing successful NIH grant proposals. Applications are being accepted for the next introductory workshop, which will be held August 14-15, 2000. For more information, call (800) 490-3924.

We are always interested in hearing about NIGMS minority program faculty, alumni, and students. Photographs of your students, research labs, and activities are also welcomed and encouraged. Please send information to:

NIGMS Minority Programs Update
Room 1AS.25
45 Center Drive MSC 6200
Bethesda, MD 20892-6200
Telephone: (301) 496-7301
Fax: (301) 402-0224
e-mail: atheys@nigms.nih.gov

Research Highlights

Research on Electric Fish May Shed Light on Nervous Systems

Electric fish are attractive models for studying the neural modulation of membrane electrical properties by measuring changes in the waveform of their electric organ discharge (EOD). Properties of the ion channels in these fish, the source of the EOD waveforms, are subject to short-term changes (second messengers and protein phosphorylation) and long-term regulation (hormone-mediated gene expression).

Dr. Philip K. Stoddard, an MBRS principal investigator at Florida International University, has explored variation in EOD waveforms in the freshwater electric fish Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus. Stoddard has shown that these fish are specialists in the rapid modulation of action potentials. He has found that predation avoidance could be a driving force in the evolution of these signals. Experimental results support his hypothesis that predators exert the key selective force, driving the evolution of the EOD waveform from a simple monophasic pulse to a more complex, biphasic electric pulse. In subsequent evolution of the electric waveform, sexual selection has conflicted with predation forces--sexual selection has favored an enlarged and extended male waveform, but such waveforms also attract predators. Male electric fish have evolved the capacity to change their action potential waveforms in minutes to balance mate attraction against predation risk.

Understanding the forces involved in the evolutionary changes of the EOD waveform of electric fish lays the foundation for identifying the neural and chemical mechanisms by which social and environmental stimuli elicit changes in the nervous systems of vertebrates at both the organismic and molecular levels.

MBRS Researcher Offers Hope for Cleaner Air

The air pollution near the border cities of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, TX, is easily visible to travelers. Much of the pollution is produced by the more than 400 kilns throughout Ciudad Juarez that fire bricks for the construction of adobe buildings in the area.

Robert Marquez, an MBRS predoctoral student participant working in the lab of Dr. Antonio Lara at New Mexico State University, designed a prototype kiln fitted with a novel filtration system for trapping and removing particulate matter and chemical carcinogens emitted by the combustible materials used in these kilns. The environmentally friendly kiln he designed is elegant in its simplicity and can be made using readily available brick-making materials.

It has been estimated that this new system could reduce particulate matter emissions by 1 to 2 percent annually in the El Paso and Ciudad Juarez region. The reduction of these emissions is expected to improve air quality and decrease the incidence of chronic lung disease in the region.

Reference: Stoddard PK. Predation enhances complexity in the evolution of electric fish signals. Nature 1999;400:254-6.

Selected Publications by MARC and MBRS Faculty and Students

(listed by institution)

Alabama State University
Singh SP, Miller S, Williams YU, Klebba PE, Macchia P, Marshall N. Recognition specificity of monoclonal antibodies which protect mice against Salmonella typhimurium infection. Res Microbiol 1999;150:385-94.

California State University, Dominguez Hills
De Velasco B, Martinez JM, Ochoa GH, Miller AM, Clark YM, Matsumoto B, Robles LJ. Identification and immunolocalization of actin cytoskeletal components in light- and dark-adapted octopus retinas. Exp Eye Res 1999;68:725-37.

California State University, Fullerton
Garrett FE, Goel S, Yasul J, Koch RA. Liposomes fuse with sperm cells and induce activation by delivery of impermeant agents. Biochem Biophys Acta 1999;4:77-88.

Florida International University
Assad C, Rasnow B, Stoddard PK. Electric organ discharges and electric images during electrolocation. J Exp Biol 1999;202:1185-93.

Stoddard PK, Rasnow B, Assad C. Electric organ discharges of the gymnotiform fishes: III. J Comp Physiol 1999;184:609-30.

Inter American University of Puerto Rico
Alzerreca A, Hernandez E, Mangual E, Prieto JA. Phenylsulfonyl-methylenation of aldonolactones. J Heterocyclic Chem 1999;36:555.

Frame AD, Rios-Olivares E, De Jesus L, Oritz D, Pagan J, Mendez S. Plants from Puerto Rico with anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties. P R Health Sci J 1998;17:243-52.

San Francisco State University
Ciesiolka LD, Hwin T, Gearlds JD, Minsavage GV, Saenz R, Bravo M, Handley V, Conover SM, Zhang H, Caporgno J, Phengrasamy NB, Toms AO, Stall RE, Whalen MC. Regulation of expression of avirulence gene avrRxv and identification of a family of host interaction factors by sequence analysis of avrBsT. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 1999;12:35-44.

State University of New York
College at Old Westbury
Hoyte RM, Labaree DC, Fede JM, Harris C, Hochberg RB. Iodinated andfluorinated steroid 2'-aryl-[3,2-c] pyrazoles as potential glucocorticoidreceptor imaging agents. Steroids 1998;63:595-602.

Labaree DC, Hoyte RM, Nazareth LV, Weigel NL, Hochberg RB. 7Alpha symbol-Iodo and7Alpha symbol-Fluoro steroids as androgen receptor-mediated imaging agents. J Med Chem1999;42:2021-34.

University of California, Los Angeles
Levine MS, Klapstein GJ, Koppel A, Gruen E, Cepeda C, Vargas ME, Jokel ES, Carpenter EM, Zanjani H, Hurst RS, Efstratiadis A, Zeitlin S, Chesselet MF. Enhanced sensitivity to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation in transgenic and knockin mouse models of Huntington's disease. J Neurosci Res 1999;58:515-32.

Nabakka JM, Harwell DE, Knobler CB, Hawthorne MF. Synthesis and structural characterization of a thioether-bridged commo-metallabis (dicarbollide) species: a model system for Venus flytrap cluster reagents. J Organometallic Chem 1998;550:423.

Pizza FX, Hernandez IJ, Tidball JG. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces muscle inflammation and necrosis in modified muscle use. J Leukoc Biol 1998;64:427-33.

University of California, Santa Cruz
Contreras B, Talamantes F. Growth hormone (GH) and 17beta-estradiol regulation of the expression of mouse GH receptor and GH-binding protein in cultured mouse hepatocytes. Endocrinology 1999;140:4725-31.

University of Guam
Becerro MA, Paul VJ, Starmer J. Intracolonial variation in chemical defenses of the sponge Casospongia sp. and its consequences on generalist fish predators and the specialist nudibranch predator Glossodoris pallida. Marine Ecology Progress Series 1998;168:187-96.

Harrigan GG, Luesch H, Yoshida WY, Moore RE, Nagle DG, Biggs J, Park PU, Paul VJ. Tumonoic acids, novel metabolites from a cyanobacterial assemblage of Lyngbya majuscula and Schizothrix calcicola. J Nat Prod 1999;62:464-7.

Harrigan GG, Luesch H, Yoshida WY, Moore RE, Nagle DG, Paul VJ. Symplostatin 2: a dolastatin 13 analogue from the marine cyanobacterium Symploca hydnoides. J Nat Prod 1999;62:655-8.

Harrigan GG, Luesch H, Yoshida WY, Moore RE, Nagle DG, Paul VJ, Mooberry SL, Corbett TH, Valeriote FA. Symplostatin 1: a dolastatin 10 analogue from the marine cyanobacterium Symploca hydnoides. J Nat Prod 1998;61:1075-7.

Harrigan GG, Yoshida WY, Moore RE, Nagle DG, Park PU, Biggs J, Paul VJ, Mooberry SL, Corbett TH, Valeriote FA. Isolation, structure determination, and biological activity of dolastatin 12 and lyngbyastatin 1 from Lyngbya majuscula/Schizothrix calcicola cyanobacterial assemblages. J Nat Prod 1998;61:1221-5.

Hooper DR, Hunter CL, Richmond RH. Sexual reproduction of the tropical sea cucumber, Actinopyga mauritiana (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea), in Guam. Bulletin of Marine Science 1998;63:1-9.

Nagle DG, Camacho FT, Paul VJ. Dietary preferences of opisthobranch mollusc Stylocheilus longicauda for secondary metabolites produced by the tropical cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. Marine Biol 1998;132:267-73.

Nagle DG, Paul VJ. Chemical defense of a marine cyanobacterial bloom. J Exp Marine Biol Ecol 1998;225:29-38.

Rowan R. Diversity and ecology of zooxanthellae on coral reefs. J Psychol 1998;34:407-17.

Shin J, Seo Y, Cho KW, Rho JR, Paul VJ. Osirisynes A-F, highly oxygenated polyacetylenes from the sponge Haliclona osiris. Tetrahedron 1998;54:8711-20.

Slattery M, Avila C, Starmer J, Paul VJ. A sequestered soft coral diterpene in the aeolid nudibranch Phyllodesmium guamensis. J Exp Marine Biol Ecol 1998;226:33-49.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Nunez JL, Juraska JM. The size of the splenium of the rat corpus callosum: influence of hormones, sex ratio, and neonatal cryoanesthesia. Dev Psychobiol 1998;33:295-303.

Nunez JL, Kim BY, Juraska JM. Neonatal cryoanesthesia affects the morphology of the visual cortex in the adult rat. Dev Brain Res 1998;111:89-98.

Send in your references for inclusion in Selected Publications. We would appreciate your contribution to this section in order to represent as many MARC and MBRS programs as possible. Complete bibliographical citations can be phoned, faxed, mailed, or e-mailed to the Editor (see page 1).

Recent Awards and Fellowships

Predoctoral Fellowships for Minority Students
(listed by fellow and graduate institution)

Kamilah S. Ali, Yale University, New Haven, CT.
Idelisa Ayala, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis.
Jerel A. Banks, Brown University, Providence, RI.
Amy M. Barrios, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
Jeanine R. Burse, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.
Andrea R. Castillo, University of Colorado at Boulder.
Justin C. Hope, Columbia University, New York, NY.
Edward W. Horsey, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.
Catherine A. Ibarra, University of Washington, Seattle.
Kurt Jackson, Yeshiva University, New York, NY.
Mabel Lopez, Finch University of Health Sciences/Chicago Medical School, North Chicago, IL.
Reynold I. Lopez-Soler, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
Gabriel M. Ortiz, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY.
Cindy M. Quezada, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
Elizabeth S. Quintana, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces.
Morayma Reyes, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis.
Wanda Seyton, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO.

MARC Faculty Fellowships
(listed by principal investigator and institution)

Doris A. Betancourt, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.

Bridges to the Future Awards
(listed by institution and principal investigator)

Bridges to the Baccalaureate

California State University, Dominguez Hills, Thomas D. Landefeld.
Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, Julius P. Mitchell.
Hampton University, VA, Elaine T. Eatman.
Howard University, Washington, DC, Winston A. Anderson.
J. Sargent Reynolds Community College, Richmond, VA, Deborah L. Neely-Fisher.
Mercy College, Dobbs Ferry, NY, Stephen A. Daniel.
Metropolitan State College, Denver, CO, Rosemarie Depoy Walker.
New York City Technical College, City University of New York, Louise T. Squitieri.
Northwest Technical College, East Grand Forks, MN, Susan Kuntz.
San Jose State University, CA, Herbert B. Silber.
Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos, Dana M. Garcia.
State University of New York at Binghamton, Donald D. Blake.
Texas Woman's University, Denton, Michael H. Droge.
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Joan F. Lorden.
University of Kansas, Lawrence, James A. Orr.
Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Gyula G. Ficsor.
Yosemite Community College, Modesto, CA, Pamela Upton.

Bridges to the Doctoral

City University of New York Graduate School and University Center, Linda N. Edwards.
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Richard H. Kennedy.
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey at Newark, Henry E. Brezenoff.
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey at Piscataway, Michael J. Leibowitz.
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque,William R. Galey.
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, Louis J. De Felice.

MBRS Awards
(listed by institution and principal investigator)

University of Puerto Rico, Humacao University College, Antonio E. Alegria.

California State University, San Marcos, Victor Rocha.
University of Puerto Rico, Cayey University College, Robert G. Ross.

Chicago State University, IL, Warren V. Sherman.
Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN, Maria D. Lima.
Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD, T.J. Robinson.
New York City Technical College, Brooklyn, NY, Louise T. Squitieri.
San Francisco State University, CA, Frank T. Bayliss.
St. Mary's University, San Antonio, TX, Colleen J. Nolan.

California State University, Long Beach, Marco A. Lopez.
University of California, Santa Cruz, Barry J. Bowman.
University of Iowa, Iowa City, Peter E. Nathan.
University of Missouri, Columbia, Gerald M. Buening.
San Diego State University, CA, Vernon L. Avila.
University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Cary W. Cooper.
University of Washington, Seattle, Daniel M. Dorsa.
Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, Joseph C. Dunbar.

MARC Awards
(listed by institution and principal investigator)

Alcorn State University, Lorman, MS, Abram H. Dunbar.
State University of New York, College at Old Westbury, Robert M. Hoyte.
University of Arizona, Tucson, Marc E. Tischler.

MARC Ancillary Training Activities
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Sidney H. Golub.
National Institute of Science, Carolyn M. Cousin.

Institutional Research and Academic Career Development Awards
(listed by institution and principal investigator)
University of California, Davis, Jerry L. Hedrick.
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Walter E. Bollenbacher.

Upcoming Meetings

March 19-23, 2000
Society of Toxicology

39th Annual Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA. Contact: Society of Toxicology, 1767 Business Center Drive, Suite 302, Reston, VA 20190-5332; phone (703) 438-3115; fax (703) 438-3113; e-mail sothq@toxicology.org.

March 26-30, 2000
American Chemical Society

219th National Meeting and Exposition, San Francisco, CA. Contact: ACS Meetings Department, 1155 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036-4899; phone (202) 872-6059; fax (202) 872-6128; e-mail natlmtgs@acs.org.

March 29-April 2, 2000
National Black Graduate Student Conference

12th Annual Meeting, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Contact: NBGSC, The Pyle Center, Room 139, 702 Langdon Street, Madison, WI 53706; fax (608) 265-3163; e-mail NBGSC2000@gwmadison.wisc.edu.

April 15-18, 2000
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

Experimental Biology 2000, San Diego Convention Center, San Diego, CA. Contact: Experimental Biology 2000 Office of Scientific Meetings and Conferences, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814-3998; phone (301) 530-7010; fax (301) 571-5752; e-mail eb@faseb.org.

April 19-21, 2000
Association of Minority Health Professions Schools

14th Annual Symposium on Career Opportunities in the Biomedical Sciences, Washington, DC. Contact: Carol Wilkins, AMHPS, 3 Executive Park Drive, NE, Suite 100, Atlanta, GA 30329; phone (404) 634-1993 ext. 250; fax (404) 634-1903; e-mail mail@minorityhealth.org.

April 26-29, 2000
National Alliance for Hispanic Health

13th Biennial Conference, Hyatt Regency, San Diego, CA. Contact: Maria Serrano, COSSMHO, 1501 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036; phone (202) 387-5000; fax (202) 797-4353; e-mail alliance@hispanichealth.org.

May 21-25, 2000
American Society for Microbiology

100th General Meeting, Los Angeles Convention Center, Los Angeles, CA. Contact: ASM Meetings Department, 1752 N Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036-2804; phone (202) 737-3600; e-mail meetingsinfo@asmusa.org.

June 4-8, 2000
American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

Joint Meeting, Hynes Convention Center, Boston, MA. Contact: FASEB Office of Scientific Meetings and Conferences, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814-3998; phone (301) 530-7010; fax (301) 530-7014; e-mail asbmb@asbmb.faseb.org.

June 7-11, 2000
Society for Developmental Biology

59th Annual Meeting, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO. Contact: SDB, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814-3998; phone (301) 571-0647; fax (301) 571-5704.

June 23-27, 2000
Society for the Study of Evolution/American Society of Naturalists/Society for Systemic Biologists

Combined Meeting, Bloomington, IN. Contact: Judy Warner, Indiana University Conference Services, One City Centre, Suite 100, 120 West 7th Street, Bloomington, IN 47404; phone (812)855-4661; fax (812) 855-8077; e-mail juewarne@indiana.edu.

August 20-24, 2000
American Chemical Society

220th National Meeting and Exposition, Washington, DC. Contact: ACS Meetings Department, 1155 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036-4396; phone (202) 872-4396; fax (202) 872-6128; e-mail natlmtgs@acs.org.

October 3-7, 2000
American Society of Human Genetics

50th Annual Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA. Contact: ASHG Meeting Office, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814-3998; phone (301) 571-1825; fax (301) 530-7079; e-mail mryan@genetics.faseb.org.

October 12-15, 2000
Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science

National Conference, Hyatt Regency, Atlanta, GA. Contact: SACNAS, P.O. Box 8526, Santa Cruz, CA 95061-8526; phone (831) 459-0170; fax (831) 459-0194; e-mail info@sacnas.org.

October 29-November 2, 2000
American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

Annual Meeting and Exposition, Indiana Convention Center, Indianapolis, IN. Contact: AAPS, 1650 King Street, Suite 200, Alexandria, VA 22314-2747; phone (703) 548-3000; fax (703) 684-7349; e-mail meetings@aaps.org.

November 4-9, 2000
Society for Neuroscience

Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA. Contact: SFN, 11 Dupont Circle, NW, Suite 500, Washington, DC 20036; phone (202) 462-6688; e-mail info@sfn.org.

November 8-11, 2000
National Minority Research Symposium

Annual Meeting, Renaissance Hotel, Washington, DC. Contact: Dr. Wilveria Atkinson, NMRS, P.O. Box 20366, Winston-Salem, NC 27120; phone (336) 983-3773; fax (336) 983-6852.

November 9-11, 2000
American Indian Science & Engineering Society

22nd Annual National Conference, Oregon Convention Center, Portland, OR. Contact: AISES, P.O. Box 9828, Albuquerque, NM, 87119-9828; phone (505) 765-1052; fax (505) 765-5608; e-mail info@aises.org.

December 9-13, 2000
American Society for Cell Biology

40th Annual Meeting, Moscone Convention Center, San Francisco, CA. Contact: ASCB, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814-3998; phone (301) 530-7153; fax (301) 530-7139; e-mail ascbinfo@ascb.org.

Acronyms Used in this Issue

BSCP - Biomedical Science Careers Program
IHS - Indian Health Service
IMSD - Initiative for Minority Student Development
IRACDA - Institutional Research and Academic Career Development Award
MARC - Minority Access to Research Careers
MBRS - Minority Biomedical Research Support
MORE - Minority Opportunities in Research
NCRR - National Center for Research Resources
NIGMS - National Institute of General Medical Sciences
NIH - National Institutes of Health

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